Introduction – Psychology examines the behavior of people at three levels. These are the traits that are common to everyone and the distinctive characteristics that are shared by a particular group of individuals, and the characteristics that are specific to each person. It means that although some characteristics are shared by all, however, some distinguish each individual. As a psychology student, I am keen to pursue any discipline that emphasizes particular differences in individuals and how those variations affect personality. Gordon (2006) describes, that it is essential to be aware of the career options in this field and consequently, pursue relevant subjects. This will allow me to develop relevant skills and also increase my chances of a successful career. Regarding my career objectives, I’ve decided to study Differential Psychology. Differential Psychology is the science that explains the differences between behavior and personality. Every person has different opinions about values, preferences, and preferences. These differences influence the behavior of every individual. Other factors like size, age gender, intelligence, and the IQ of a person also affect their behavior. Differential Psychologists claim that these factors determine the way that each person reacts to stimulus. In this context, Differential Psychology influences personalized medical care as well as the psychology of education (Maltby and Macaskill 2007).
Differential Psychology About Individualized Education and Medicine
As I mentioned earlier this field of study provides me with abilities that allow me to gain a better understanding of the way that individuals react to stimuli. The way that people react to stimuli could be explained by variations in their genes. This is why people with mental health issues react differently to certain medications, which is why every patient needs individual therapy (Revelle, Wilt, and Condon 2010, 2009; Maltby as well as Macaskill 2007). In addition, in the educational system students’ ability to learn is determined by factors like the age of the student, IQ as well as intelligence the way they think, and their personal preferences. While there are general education interventions that allow for efficient learning at schools, they also have some students who require specialized instruction methods. This includes students with exceptional talent and students who have difficulty learning. In this way, Differential Psychology becomes relevant to education psychological issues (Woolfolk, Winne, and Perry 2006. Maltby as well as Macaskill 2007).
Differential Psychology: A theoretical approach
To fully understand and study Differential Psychology means that I need to comprehend the theoretical aspects. Revelle, Wilt, and Condon (2010) claim that there are many theories by which Differential Psychology is understood. While the majority of these theories are well-developed, the Reinforcement Theory is being tested by empirical evidence. The Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory deals with the explanation of a person’s personality and the complex, underlying distinctions between people in terms of their biology, cognition, and behavior. The theory is mostly descriptive and attempts to clarify how cognitive, emotional, and behavioral traits create a distinct personality (Revelle 2006). To improve the understanding I have of cognition, biology, and behavior affect personality, I’ve chosen to concentrate on this concept.
Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory suffers from a variety of theoretical shortcomings. For example, how scientists consider the theory is based on the method of study used by the researcher and the underlying beliefs. This means the theory of reinforcement sensitivity is comprised of multiple, and often contradictory theories. Furthermore, the majority of experiments are carried out with rats, not humans. As such, several issues emerge. For example, in the actual world, the issue has been raised about the validity of research results of such research on human beings. Furthermore, the ethicality of conducting studies on animals and then interpreting the results about human beings is equivalent to comparing animals with humans. Additionally, there are significant difficulties in the measurement of personality-related constructs in this theory. While the theory attempts to connect concepts and biological constructs but it is not possible to link the biological foundations of this theory with concepts like feelings and perceptual (Revelle 2006). Corr (2001) also states additional main problem with this model is the unresolvable distinction between each person’s reaction to stimuli as well as the researcher’s anticipated reaction. Together with the fact that the majority of experiments involve animals, it is possible to cause legal issues, especially when those results are used to explain human personality differences.
Beyond the theological issues discussed above, There are additional concerns over the extent to which Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory can address the sociocultural sensitivity that determines personality characteristics. In the past, no efforts were made to connect the theoretical foundations of Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory with sociocultural factors. Corr (2008) accomplishes this by separating the temperament of an individual (the constant attributes that influence the behavior of an individual) in contrast to the character (the inherent characteristics that affect the behavior of an individual). Both character and temperament can be directly or indirectly affected by social-cultural beliefs. It is therefore evident that the sociocultural perspective generally influences the development of a person’s personality.
With these challenges, I will concentrate on how future research should address these issues specifically about personalized mental health care as well as educational psychology. It is essential to note that the issues with Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory in no way negate the concept. They provide opportunities for further research. Particularly, researchers need to develop methods for testing biological as well as conceptual concepts to produce accurate results that can be used to determine the personality, but also behavior of an individual (Revelle 2006).
It is essential to note the fact that Differential Psychology is a very essential field that permits future mental health professionals and educational psychologists to develop more understanding of how cognition, biology, and personality affect each other. In particular, concerning the Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory, it is possible to explain individual differences of individuals by combining several concepts, including conceptual, biological, as well as psychological. Although some notable limitations in the theory and practice could be addressed, they can provide a future differential psychologist with the opportunity to conduct future research. It is essential to mention it is that Differential Psychology is concerned with the individual’s differences and how a person’s genetic background influences these variations. This is why doctors must develop treatments that are specific to each patient.
In the same way, teachers must create teaching strategies that take into account the specific learning needs of every student. This means that differential Psychologists can play in helping educators and mental health professionals psychologists to recognize personal differences. The shortcomings in theory that were previously identified can be used to further enhance future research. It’s interesting to discover how those possibilities for research in the future can allow one to gain a better understanding of the differences between individuals. Furthermore, future research should focus on the shortcomings currently present in the measurement of biological and conceptual concepts. This is why differential Psychologists should develop new ways to assess these concepts. The goal is to create reliable results that allow them to demonstrate the connection between conception, biology, and behavior and increase understanding of personality differences. These insights are essential to medical professionals and educators as they comprehend how physical and emotional traits determine character and impact responses to stimulus. This is why Differential Psychology provides the possibility of growth in areas such as education and medicine.