Yama: Sub-constitutes

Yama is the first pillar of Ashtanga yoga which mainly referred to the ethical rules or code of conduct that help an individual to disconnect himself from external things that are bounded to him. Yama can be practiced by anybody irrespective of gender, caste, age, place, and time. Yama helps an individual to be free from worldly bondages like anger, desire, affection, ego, greediness, and jealousy.

These ethical rules should be followed strictly as they form a framework on which society is made on. Nonviolence, truth, non-stealing, celibacy, and non-greediness are the five ethical rules by Lord Patanjali in Yoga Sutra whereas in addition to the above Hath Yoga Pradipika mentioned forgiving to deserving one, courage, kindness, balanced and restricted diet, and cleanliness as the other ethical rules. The description is as follows

Yama: Sub-constitutes

S.N. Yoga Sutra Hatha Yoga Pradipika
1 Ahimsa(Non- violence ) Ahimsa(Non- violence )
2 Satya( Speaking Truth) Satya( Speaking Truth)
3 Asteya( Non- stealing) Asteya( Non- stealing)
4 Brahmcharya (Celibacy ) Brahmcharya (Celibacy)
5 Aparigraha( Non-Greediness) kshama( forgiveness)
6 Dhruti( Courage )
7 Daya( kindness)
8 Arjavam(Honesty)
9 Mitaahar( balanced diet )
10 Shauch(Cleanliness)

Non- violence (Ahimsa)

Not treating anyone in the sense to hurt them. Not causing any harm to anyone through anybody, mind, and speech, or action. One should consider every living being like himself and treat accordingly. Peace through words, thoughts, and deeds is the best sign of goodwill and love for everybody. This will not only free person violence but increase friendliness and tolerance among each other and will also reduce enmity in the world

Celibacy (Brahmacharya)

This will lead to the conservation of energy and will lead to raised potential to live life longer than usual. Its an act of sexual control in an unethical situation as different rituals have a different aspect regarding the concept of the sexual act as if we think of a tribe, a village, or developed westerner countries of Europe will give the idea of it. Sexual expression is served to rule out the outcomes of emotions, passions of our mentality, and idealism.

Non-stealing (Asteya)

Keeping self away from the desire of taking other’s things and not considering the other’s thing of self mentally, verbally, or through any action.

Speaking Truth (Satya)

One should always speak the truth and be pleasant to others but should be avoided in the case where the truth may make another person unhappy or hurt him. It is a type of ethical rule in which is an individual has a complete belief in speaking truth and the result of his action is left to the deeds.

Courage ( Dhruti)

To realize the ability of self by having faith in studying Vedas and other guiding books and try to liberate self from this world is called courage.

Forgiveness (Kshama)

If a person is being hurt by some other either mentally, physically, or verbally, he should forgive by seers and avoid the thoughts of taking revenge or in return action to equalize the trouble or torture caused by the enemy.

Non- greediness ( Aparigraha)

An individual should be satisfied and stable with what he holds in present and should not have the desire to gain more surplus possessions, without any greed should realize the meaning of true life. Persistence in this solemnity provides knowledge of with his/her past and the upcoming life. Apart from this free from the rigidity of thoughts is also considered to be part of it. Repeated try should be there from a person to gain the knowledge that what he is? and for what is being there?

Kindness (Daya)

A person has to consider all living beings as self by his bodily actions, thoughts, and words and treat accordingly with a positive aspect. There should be no cruelty in any manner for anyone.

Honesty ( Aarjavam)

These ethics guide a person to treat every individual with equality either he is a son, wife or friend, or even enemy. He should consider everybody in the same state to tackle, there should be no particular intention to benefit a special relation person.

Cleanliness (Shauch)

There should be no particular attraction to any sensual thing or pleasure for that, to keep body and mind clean from the external affectioning things which distract an individual to commit the unethical actions in society is called cleanliness. To generate self-intelligence about the necessity of thought regarding a particular thing creates regulated behavior and keeps a person clean and pure.

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Balanced and regulated diet (Mitaahar)

An individual should avoid excessive or irregular eating. Often a person avoids non-tasty food having good health values while eating more which are not good for health but seems to be tasty. Diet should be regulated according to the demand of the body, digestive power, time, place, and some other factor like age, gender, health status, occupation, etc. Excessive eating will cause many metabolic disorders starting with obesity.


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