The two words Agni and Karma unite to form a unique term or procedure i.e., Agnikarma which means “the act / Karma which take place by nature of Agni to spread in upward direction”. When it is done with the help of various Dravya to transfer heat to different parts of the body or organs to produce Samyaka Dagdha Vrana is called Agnikarma, superior to other para-surgical procedures like Siravedha (Bloodletting), Jalokaavcharna (leech therapy), and Ksharkarma (caustic).
Agnikarma and Sushruta Samhita
Acharya Sushruta has given a great contribution to Ayurveda regarding Agnikarma Chikitsa. Nowadays this Agnikarma procedure is modified scientifically as electric cauterization which is used for various therapeutic purposes starting from minor surgical procedures to major surgical procedures.
In the context of the Shonitavarnaniya chapter in Sutrasthana four types of procedures (Sandhana, Skandana, Pachana, and, Dahana) have been mentioned to control the bleeding. Dahana is the last procedure for stoppage of bleeding when the other three procedures failed, Bloodless surgery evolved from this principle.
Classification of Agnikarma: –
1.According to Dhatu involved: Twak Dagdha &Mamsa Dagdha
2. According to Dravya used for Dahana:
- Snigdha Dagdha– by Madhu, Ghrita, used in disorders of Sira, Snayu, Asthi, and Sandhi
- Ruksha Dagdha -Loha, Pippali, Sara, Shalaka, etc. to manage the disorders which are treatable by Twak Dagdha and Mamsa Dagda.
The material used for Dahankarma
1. Materials useful for Twak Dagdha are:
- Pippali (Piper longum)
- Ajashakrut (fecal pellets of a goat)
- Godanta (Moonstone)
- Shara (arrow-like device)
- Shalaka (rod of metal)
- Suryakanta and Varti (mentioned by Vagbhata)
2. Materials useful for Mamsa Dagdha are: –
- Jambaustha (device resembling like Jambu) and other metallic instruments
- Madhu (honey)
- Guda (jaggary)
- Sneha (oil/ghee) (Vagbhata)
- Materials useful for Sira, Snayu, Asthi, and Sandhi are: –
- Madhu (honey)
- Guda (jaggary)
- Jambaustha mentioned by Vagbhata
- Due to the quick transfer of heat in Tamra and Rajat Shalaka Atidagdha Vrana develops. Samyaka Dagdha Vrana is done by using Loha Shalaka as it becomes red hot and cools down soon afterward. But it is suggested that solitary metal Shalaka is not used as an ideal Shalaka. Ideally 20-30 Samyakdagdha Vrana is made once Shalaka is heated. So single metal Shalaka is not much liable to use.
- Prof. P.D. Gupta’s innovative Panchadhatu Shalaka is considered ideal as 20-30 Samyaka Dagdha Vrana could be made satisfactorily after once heating and sustaining heat.
Dahana Vishesa implies the type of shape produced in the skin after Agnikarma.
Acharya Sushruta has mentioned four types:
- Valaya– Figure of a Circle or Round shape.
- Bindu– Figure of dot shape
- Vilekha– Figure of parallel line
- Pratisarana– Figure after rubbing or scrapping nature.
Acharya Vagbhata has mentioned 3 more types of varieties in addition to the above four:
- Ardhachandrakara– Semilunar shape
- Swastika – four tailed mark
- Astapada -eight-tailed mark
Characteristics of Samyaka Dagdha Vrana
According to Dhatu:
Twak Dhatu Dagdha –
- Shabda Pradurbhava (Production of sound)
- Durgandhata (Bad odor)
- Twak Sankocha (Contraction of skin)
Mamsa Dhatu Dagdha –
- Kapota Varnata (Color like a pigeon)
- Alpa Shwayathu (Mild inflammation)
- Alpa Vedana (Mild pain)
- Shushka Sankuchita Vranata (Dry, contracted wound)
Sira, Snayu Dagdha –
- Krishna Varnata (Black discoloration)
- Unnata Vranata (Elevated)
- Srava Sannirodha (Stoppage of discharge)
Asthi, Sandhi Dagdha –
- Rukshata (Dryness)
- Arunta (Dark red coloration)
- Karkashata (Roughness)
- Sthirata (Stability)
Principles of Agnikarma:
- Agnikarma Yogya Kala– Any season except Summer (Greeshma) and autumn (Sharad) as it favors chances of Pitta Prokopa and complications but in emergency Paratyanika Vidhi (by adopting proper countermeasures) is adapted. Dalhana has advised covering the body or the site of Agnikarma with a moist cloth, use of cold foods and drinks, applying pastes that have a cooling effect, etc. as counter methods to pacify the effect of burning.
- Diet before Agnikarma Chikitsa: – Sushruta mentioned that patients should Pichhila Ahara (rice and curd) before the procedure in all diseases or seasons except Ashmari, Bhagandara, Arsha, and Mukha Roga. Acharya Dalhana has specified the reason that Pichhila Ahara suppresses the Pitta Dosha under its Sheeta, Mridu, and Pichhila Virya.
Agnikarma Shreshthatav: (Superiority of Thermal Cautery)
- Shreshthatav –Agni (fire) assumed as superior strata then Kshara (alkali) for burning Agnikarma eliminate reoccurance. And also untreatable diseases from application of medicines, sharp instruments and alkalis are also curable by Agnikarma.
क्षारादग्निर्गरीयान्क्रियासुव्याख्यातः, तद्दग्धानांरोगाणामपुनर्भावाद्भेषजशस्त्रक्षारैरसाध्यानांतत्साध्यत्वाच्च| (सु.सू– १२/१)
- Nirjevanu Karan –Acharya Sushruta had mentioned that Agnitapta Shastras used for Chhedana to prevent sepsis in surgical procedure.
अग्नितप्तेनशस्त्रेणछिन्द्यान्मधुसमायुतम्|| (सु.चि.– २/४२)
- Agnikarma is also useful after Shastra karma to avoid recurrence i.e., Kadara
- Pradhanatwat – Considered superior than other Para surgical modalities
- Vishishtopakram vat – Agni regarded Vishishta in Upkaram’s.
- Sonitastnapantvat– Used to check bleeding as in Modern Surgery as Cautery.
- Curative Property – Agnikarma eradicates diseases from its root.
- Ashu Kriya Karanatvat – It has immediate action and emergency.
- Sarva Tantra Samanyatvat -It brings the organ system to a state of homeostasis.